Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present. If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position. Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people. They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3:
Creation vs. Evolution
Everything Worth Knowing About Scientific Dating Methods This dating scene is dead. The good dates are confirmed using at least two different methods, ideally involving multiple independent labs for each method to cross-check results. Sometimes only one method is possible, reducing the confidence researchers have in the results.
Wine History science and social impact through time . One path of wine history could follow the developments and science of grape growing and wine production; another might separately trace the spread of wine commerce through civilization, but there .
Renaissance Now, let’s look at some specific examples. One type of atom that does not normally react is Neon. See the picture to the left. It already has the correct number of electrons in it’s outside electron layer so Neon does not react. Neon, along with Helium and Argon are known as non-reacting gasses because they do not need to react to be stable.
Other types of atoms such as Hydrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen do not have the correct number of electrons to be stable by itself. Instead they have to share electrons in molecules to get the correct number of electrons in their outside electron layer. Since we only have to look at the atom that is in the center of the molecule to find out it’s shape, we will concentrate only on Carbon and Oxygen.
All the molecules illustrated on this page either have a Carbon or an Oxygen as the center atom.
Top 10 unexplained ancient artifacts – Fact or Fiction?
The development of the process was likely initiated as glass blowers experimented with molds as a way of producing special surface effects on their vessels. For instance, with pattern molding, the parison was initially shaped inside a mold that had been sculpted with diamonds, facets, circles, etc.. The mold would impart these designs to the body of the vessel. Typically the process was completed by removing the parison from the mold and blowing and spinning it in an off-hand fashion until the desired shape and size were achieved.
The second step in the transition to molding involved the use of what are known as dip molds.
In this article, an overview is presented of the status of the radiocarbon dating of iron-based materials. Recent advances include simplification in sample preparation and reduction in sample size for accelerator mass spectrometry measurements, and the potential use of rust as a viable source of material for radiocarbon dating.
An overview of standard and proprietary computer character sets and Kermit protocols for identifying them and converting them. Also in Space Daily, 9 December Kermit Publicity Binders [Box 14] Three-ring binders with articles, brochures, press clippings, photos, etc, mounted in plastic. Kermit News Numbers C-Kermit book; Digital Press flyers. Press releases and clippings from newspapers and magazines.
Kermit Press Clippings [Box 15 and 16] Articles about and announcements of Kermit software from the trade press, user group and university newsletters, training catalogs, etc. Info-Kermit Digest; C-Kermit 7.
Fuente Magna, the Controversial Rosetta Stone of the Americas
You will have to alter at least one of those points. Except, when there was no motion. On a computer screen interlaced recordings are annoying to watch because the lines are really disturbing. Especially in scenes where there’s movement from left to right right to left you see the interlacing, like in this example: The text at the bottom scrolls from right to left and thus leaves you with mice teeth because this frame consists of 2 snapshots of time, as described above.
Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils (like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old).
Over the last 40 years, there has been a discernible increase in the number of scholars who have focused their research on early industrial organizations, a field of study that has come to be known as Archaeotechnology. Archaeologists have conducted fieldwork geared to the study of ancient technologies in a cultural context and have drawn on the laboratory analyses developed by materials scientists as one portion of their interpretive program.
Corroded iron from the Java Sea Wreck. Chinese Warring States arrowhead dating to about — B. A wrought-iron Roman cleaver. Large spear from Burkino Faso, Africa. Paperweight made by reworking iron from the Himeji Castle in Japan.
Public Domain Constructing an Obelisk Although the ancient Egyptians recorded a great deal about the meaning of obelisks, they left us little about the process by which obelisks were made. The conventional explanation is that the ancient Egyptians chiseled into granite blocks with copper tools and then inserted wooden wedges which were soaked with water.
As the wooden wedges were soaked they expanded – causing the granite to split apart. This is similar to how ice freezing in the cracks of boulders can cause the cracks to widen, forming fractures called joints. This process was probably used to carve out the blocks that would be made into obelisks. It was originally thought that the obelisk stone was also pummeled with diorite balls, which have been found all over Egypt, but now archaeologists believe that they were more likely used as ball-bearings in moving the obelisk instead.
There Were Giants in Those Days “There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare [children] to them, the same [became] mighty men which [were] of old, men of renown.”.
Radioactive decay[ edit ] Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus.
Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. Some nuclides are inherently unstable.
Fuente Magna, the Controversial Rosetta Stone of the Americas
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way.
For many people, radiometric dating might be the one scientific technique that most blatantly seems to challenge the Bible’s record of recent creation.
The Grooved Spheres 2. Giant Stone Balls of Costa Rica Workmen hacking and burning their way through the dense jungle of Costa Rica to clear an area for banana plantations in the s stumbled upon some incredible objects: They varied in size from as small as a tennis ball to an astonishing 8 feet in diameter and weighing 16 tons! Although the great stone balls are clearly man-made, it is unknown who made them, for what purpose and, most puzzling, how they achieved such spherical precision.
Impossible Fossils Fossils, as we learned in grade school, appear in rocks that were formed many thousands of years ago. A fossil of a human handprint, for example, was found in limestone estimated to be million years old. What appears to be a fossilized human finger found in the Canadian Arctic also dates back to million years ago.
And what appears to be the fossil of a human footprint, possibly wearing a sandal, was found near Delta, Utah in a shale deposit estimated to be million to million years old. Another fossilized human hand discovered in Bogota Columbia , belonging to Gutierrez collection. The rock which contains it is millions of years old. Out-of-Place Metal Objects Humans were not even around 65 million years ago, never mind people who could work metal.
So then how does science explain semi-ovoid metallic tubes dug out of million-year-old Cretaceous chalk in France?
How do Archaeologists Date Artifacts?
Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.
Carbon dating has been used successfully on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Minoan ruins and tombs of the pharaohs among other things. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of carbon is approximately 5, years.
Many skeptics feel that the crystal skulls are probably of a much more recent vintage than their accompanying stories suggest. This, they believe, is the best way to explain their existence, since no one could have created them without technologies available only within the past century.
It features beautifully engraved anthropomorphic characters, zoological motifs characteristic of the local culture, and, more surprisingly, two types of scripts —a proto-Sumerian ancient alphabet and a local language of the ancient Pukara, forerunner of the Tiahuanaco civilization. Wikimedia Commons The ancient relic was discovered accidentally by a farmer working on a private estate owned by the Manjon family.
The owners subsequently delivered it to the city hall of La Paz in in return for land near the capital. Around the same time, Bolivian archaeologist Max Portugal Zamora learned of its existence and attempted, unsuccessfully, to decipher the unusual inscriptions, not least because he failed to recognize that the writing upon the bowl was a type of cuneiform text dating back some 5, years.
They were eventually put in contact with Maximiliano, a year-old local who, after seeing a picture of the bowl, claimed it was once in his possession. Not realizing its significance, Maximiliano admitted that he had used the bowl to feed his pigs. The Fuente Magna Bowl was found to have two types of scripts engraved on the inside. Clyde Ahmed Winters, in the hope that he may be able to decipher the inscriptions.
Winters, an ancient languages expert, compared the inscriptions to Libyco-Berber writing used in the Sahara approximately 5, years ago. Approach in the future one endowed with great protection the Great Nia.
At higher temperatures, CO 2 has poor solubility in water, which means there is less CO 2 available for the photosynthetic reactions. The enrichment of bone 13 C also implies that excreted material is depleted in 13 C relative to the diet. This increase in 14 C concentration almost exactly cancels out the decrease caused by the upwelling of water containing old, and hence 14 C depleted, carbon from the deep ocean, so that direct measurements of 14 C radiation are similar to measurements for the rest of the biosphere.
Correcting for isotopic fractionation, as is done for all radiocarbon dates to allow comparison between results from different parts of the biosphere, gives an apparent age of about years for ocean surface water. The deepest parts of the ocean mix very slowly with the surface waters, and the mixing is uneven.
The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Lamoureux, March/April Introduction. Today’s archaeologist has a wide variety of natural, electro-magnetic, chemical, and radio-metric dating methodologies available to her that can be used to accurately date objects that are just a few hundred years old as well as objects that are a few million years old with high.
The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Furthermore, when you consider that many archaeological sites will contain numerous types of artifacts that permit the use of multiple dating methodologies, a modern archaeologist can often employ cross-dating methodologies which can allow for extremely accurate dating as far back as 10, years in some regions. Natural Dating Techniques A modern archaeologist has almost half a dozen natural dating techniques that she can apply in the field that she can use to quickly determine an approximate date range, which, in the cases of varve analysis and dendrochronology, can often be used to decrease the date range estimate to a matter of just a few years.
One of the oldest natural dating techniques is geochronology, which is based on the principle of superposition — an object, or layer, on top must have been placed there at a later point in time. Once a geologist has determined the absolute age of a geological formation, the archaeologist can assign an indirect date to objects found in the formation. In archaeology, geochronology lays the foundations for the dating technique better known as stratigraphy that assesses the age of archaeological materials by their association with geological deposits or formations.